Puerh tea is a composted tea produced from large-leaf tea trees in the middle and down stream Basin of Langcang River, Yunnan province. The puerh tea has it own characteristic, there are two different types of tea: fermented tea and non-fermented tea.

The way of producing puer non-fermented tea and fermented tea.
Non-fermented tea producing way
Fresh leaves-Tanliang(to let leaves lose water)-fixation(destruction of tea enzyme activity to mae grass aroma into tea aroma and texture become soft)-Rolling(to make tea forming, and tea juice overflow attached to the surface of tea leaves)-Dray(to make easy storing).

Fermented tea producing way
Fresh leaves-Fixation-Rolling-Dry-Piling-Dry
Wodui: It is special way to make fermented tea. Normally placed tea leaves in piles(about 70cm high) then covering linen after sprinkling, and monitoring to maintain proper temperature and moisture during next 40 days. The next step is to ferment tea with microbial activities, finally to form fermented puer tea with special characteristics.

Characteristic of puer non-fermented tea and fermented tea
Non-fermented tea
The color of tea cake is green, with dense scent. After brewing tea soup with shinning green yellow color, taste is fresh and mellow, tea leaves is fat with yellow green color. For the new unfermented Puer tea with bitter flavor, it can be as a collection with light yellow green color of soup.

Fermented tea
The color of tea cake is bronzing, with stale odor. After brewing tea soup with shinning red color , taste is smooth, pure and earthy. Tea leaves with dark red color. After fermentation taste of puer tea soup is smooth that can be as daily drinks.

Geography of planting Pueh tea
Yunnan is an excellent place for tea growing, it is known as the world’s most ancient tea and the world’s finest tea. Studies show that Puer tea is the ancestor of all teas that exist today in the world and it is famous for its great taste, rising value and health benefits.

Tea growing areas located in south of 25 degrees north latitude-south, south west and south east(Lacang River, Hong River) of Yunnan Province. At an altitude between 1000 m and 2000m of hills and mountains. The climate of the tea growing areas without cold winter and hot summer all the year round. The average temperature approximately 15-18 C. The heat recourse resource is rich with annual effective accumulated temperature from 4,000-8,000 C, rainfall is abundant with nearly 1,100mm per year. For these reasons that good for tea growing.

How to choose Puer tea
Puer tea is differ from other kinds of tea because of raw materials is large leaves from Lancang River. After man-made fermentation or natural fermentation to make unfermented tea a, both of these tea can be sorted for a long time.  Customers like them very much. However, there are many low quality and counterfeit tea products in the market. In order to choose good quality Puer tea, there are five statements.

Observing tea cake appearance
There are four elements consist of appearance: tea leaves, shape of tea(brick shape, small doll shape and loose tea leaves), color and purity. Appearance of tea just the one of ways to analyze the tea. A lot of merchants pay more attention to advertise appearance of tea, no information about inside of tea. As a consequence, judgment of tea should combine appearance with inside.

Smelling tea fragrance
Producing areas, harvest time, processing ways, store condition, the age of products have a big impact on the quality of Puer tea’s fragrance, so there are many different kinds of aromas. As usual the tea cannot have musty ,fishy smell and other different types of smells.
Watching tea soup
Different texture of tea leaves, producing places, seasons, fermentation level and others will influence on Puer tea soup color. The older tea is , the darker of tea soup is. Normally the new tea soup color is dark and permeability is low. With increase of years, the tea soup color will become more red, shinning and permeability.

Tasting tea soup(the key element)
Different producing places, seasons, processing, stored conditions, stored time will influence on the taste of Puer tea. Usually aged Puer tea tastes smooth, pure and earthy. And the fresh tea firstly tasted semi-saline, then sweet, leaving delicate fragrance. In short, unfermented and fermented tea should have no other intermixed taste.

Observing tea leaves after brewing
To observe tea leaves is not easy compared with other steps. You can follow the rules to check: tea leaves are even, texture is soft and glossy after brewing.

All in all , it is smart to choose well-know enterprises and brand’s tea products. Because big companies have more abundant capital strength, stronger research teams, more professional management, more specification producing environment and advanced processing technology. Moreover, big companies care to maintain brand reputation so the quality of tea with higher level than middle to small company.

Storage methods
Put in a dry and aroma-free-free place. Do not put in freezer, in the kitchen or anywhere with sunshine. If there are a large number of Puer tea store, you need a room with a moisture meter, turning the tea regularly. The common way to store tea is ceramic cylinder pile method: To choose a wide mouth ceramic cylinder then put new and old tea together without package that will good for fermentation. At the mouth of ceramic cylinder covered with cotton cloth in order to confirm it has good ventilation, no dust and foreign maters.
The concept of the method is to simulate a mini tea storehouse with a condition that can provide tea fungus growth. New and old tea together have complementary effect because the fungus from old tea move to new tea, and the fragrance of the new tea would influence on the old tea. In addition, there is a way called tea fragrance blending method for tea cake that will be drunk soon. Separating tea cake into loose tea then put them (250-500g) into ceramic cylinder about a half month. By doing this you can enjoy high quality of tea soup.
2.4.3 Storage of conditions
a) Ventilation
Good ventilation can provide oxygen that will benefit tea fungus activities to speed up tea fermentation. However, Puer tea cannot be put at balcony the reason is tea fragrance and smell will disappear because of wind. Taste of tea is so light when drink it. All in all, optimum ventilation and storage environment without unpleasant smell that is suitable for tea storage.

b) Even temperature
The temperature for storing tea neither too high nor too low, it based on local temperature. There is no point in creating suitable temperature. The optimum temperature for storing tea is around 20-30℃, if is too high that will speed up tea fermentation progress result in tea quality lower. Relatively, during spring, summer and autumn time the speed of fermentation would be faster than winter. No matter when, Puer tea should be stored without sunshine, and put them at shading places.

c) Optimum humidity
The best place to put Puer tea is “dry storehouse” (dry condition to store), avoid too wet. However, if the place too dry it will cause slow down Puer tea fermented. You can put a cup of water near the tea cake to increase humidity in air. Too much humidity will help fermentation speed up cause mold, so we cannot drink the tea anymore. The average humidity do not beyond 75% as usual. Marin climate during rainy season will more than 75%, so we should open the windows to make sure storage places should have good ventilation.
2.5 The value of collection of Puer tea
2.5.1 The conditions for collecting Puer tea
a) The older, the better
Puer tea is famous for “ the older, the better”, puer tea is the type of tea that can be stored for a long period of time. The older the tea is, the better taste is. There is statement to describe Puer tea business model: grandpa collected Puer tea, grandson sold the tea. In other words, Puer tea can be sorted for more than a decade even more than several decades, the tea will sell with good price. For examples, the Puer tea cake produced in 1980s, now the value is more than 200,000 RMB. The representation of the epoch-making tea is more expensive. Puer tea as an antique of drinking, like the red wine in western countries.
“Can be drunk and collected” are characteristics of Puer tea. “The value is higher than golden” that is for the benefits of the time. It not only hidden assets but also safety investments because it value will raise without fall.

b) The principles of “ the older, the better”.
Puer tea can be honored as antique of drinking, it be known as the older the better. Tea polyphenols, amino acid, soluble saccharide play a very important roles for the quality.
Substance of stored Puer tea is oxidation process for inside chemicals. After stored tea for a period of time, the color of tea soup is yellowish green or orange yellow become shinning red with brightness. The taste are mellow and smooth. Because tea polyphenols oxidized to decease theine soluble saccharide increased bitterness flavor
Disappear and sweet flavor appear to present special stale taste.

c) Storage for a long time
Puer tea is a post-fermented tea, the longer time for storing is ,and the better quality is. Now customers would like to buy aged Puer tea for drinking. However, aged tea processing need time to produce. Good quality of unfermented tea cake usually need more than a decade to store. And fermented tea cake need four to five years.

There are a large number of unfermented tea be collected and aged for later drinking. It seems like that Wuliangye,Maotai and red wine need time and wine cellar to age. Of course, there is a big gap between aged wine and new wine price. If producing companies want to take a part of new tea to collect, they will meet problems on capital parts. In hence, the progressing need merchant capital,collection combine with investment lead to the value of Puer tea increase.

2.5.2 Analysis of Puer tea revaluation
Normally, puer tea revalue have a dramatic rise after three years, the price of new tea and tea from last year will keep steady. Five years old tea price will double than before. It is very difficult to predicate the price of five years old tea. Because the price depend on customer taste.

2.5.3 Transaction methods
a) Normal trading
To buy new Puer tea, the price will increase about 10% for every year. Usually five years is begin value-added trading period. The tea trading constrained by the market during the first five year cause substance of Puer tea need five years or even longer to transformation. If the tea stored more than five years old, the better taste is and the higher price will be. The Puer tea with five years old, the taste same as the new so price cannot improve obviously. If trading during this period, market will impact on the price.

b) Special trading
For example, emergency selling. Tea as agricultural products, when sell them that need people to buy them. If sell tea under emergency, the price will much lower than market or cost.
2.6 Brewing and drinking Puer tea
2.6.1 Infusion and drinking Puer tea
a) Brewing Puer tea should choose dark-red enameled pottery.
b) Quantity of brewing Puer tea: using a tea knife gently scrape the tea leaves from tea cake and brick. Judge amount according to the number of people for whom you are preparing the tea. If it is only few people than 8-10 grams of tea will suffice, although many people prefer 15 to 20 grams of tea for a stronger cup.

c) Infusing your tea: Put the tea into the pot and then fill with hot water. This process will bring your tea to life and improve its clarity. When infusion is complete fast with the first cup and longer and longer as you re-use the leaves pour the tea into a separate cup. Puer tea leaves should not be left in the cup while you drink as the result will be a bitter tea. During summer time you can taste Puer tea after it becoming cool.

d) When smelling Puer tea you should sell it before it becoming cold.

e) When tasting Puer tea you should taste it with your heart. The first time you taste it is a bit bitterness. However, when you taste it at the second time you can feel it sweet and smooth.

2.6.2 Advantages of Puer tea
a) Puer tea is gentle
Nowadays many people under big pressure, stomach problems is normally. Because of Puer tea is fermented tea that will protect stomach.

b) Health beverage
Medical community confirm that Puer tea could protect cancer, therefore many people begin to drink Puer tea. Moreover Yunnan Pu-erh can help reduce lipids, cholesterol. It can help reduce weight and have an anti-hypertensive effect.

c) Easy operation
Aged Puer tea without bitterness and astringent. Immersion for a long or short time of the tea you can drink them as well.

d) Easy Storage
Puer tea as a living organism because after completion of tea body it will keep fermenting. As time goes by, the taste of them will become more stable. Different aged Puer tea has different flavors. The tea lovers and collectors who participate in the progress “ to manufacture and finish tea”. A tea cake life will last for from a decade to a hundred year ( when tea leaves left the tree to tea leaves in tea pot with hot water).

e) An antique beverage
There are few beverage of food that like Puer tea can be drunk or collected. It can be drunk buy men and women and people of old ages, and the older the better. For new Puer tea everyone drink it as daily beverage. While other tea have a short shelf life and are considered spoiled after only two years, pu-erh teas particularly in their cake form-continue to age and become more fragrant and valuable as time goes by. Through natural aging and the slow ripening process of etherification a unique style of ancient fragrant flavor is achieved. Like a fine wine aged well, the flavor of pu-erh tea becomes more intense over time and the quality improves.

2.7 The Healthy Functions of Puer Tea
2.7.1 The Function of Puer Tea
a) Fat burning, Weight Loss
The relationship between Puer Tea and fat metabolism are close. Puer Tea has a unique fermentation process, through this special chemical reaction could generates a new chemical substance, where in the enzymes break down some fat containing lipase, decomposed to produce effect on fat, so Puer Tea has a slimming effect.

b) Lowering Blood Pressure and Preventing Arteriosclerosis

c) Curing and Preventing Cancer
Scientists through a large number of people compare, prove that tea drinking populations have lower cancer incidence. And Puer Tea contains anti-cancer elements, and it can strongly kill can cells.

d) Protecting the Teeth
It contains fluoride as well as inhibits glucosyltransferase, the enzyme that help bacteria adhere to teeth, thus leading to tooth decay.

e) Protecting the stomach

Puer Tea can cut the grease, help digestion, promote body fluid secretion, quench thirst, and help the splenius dispelling alcoholic toxics. In proper concentration of tea, produced protective film is good for stomach, long-term drinking Puer Tea can nourishing the stomach, protecting the stomach.

f) Anti-aging

The research shows that the body lipid peroxidation process is one of reason for human aging. Puer Tea contains vitamin C, vitamin E, tea polyphenols, amino acids and trace elements, which could slow down the aging process.

g) Anti-radiation

According to the study of his Guofan from Zhongshan University with Puer Tea results show, drinking 2% Puer Tea can be lifted by cobalt 60 irradiation induced injuiry.

h) Alleviate Hangover
Tea Polyphenols in tea can promote the metabolism of ethanol, has a protective effect on the liver. Also, it could make the ethanol metabolism to normal smoothly. Drinking tea can increase vascular contractile function. Theophylline has a diuretic effect, can promote alcohol rapidly excreted, reducing the harm of drunken. Tea can also add alcohol hydrolysis needs vitamin C, the brain excited by alcohol anesthesia. Thus play a hangover effect. And tea hangover, absolutely not damage the spleen and stomach, not make drunk large quantity of vomiting, nausea pain occurred.

i) Cosmetology
Puer Tea can help the metabolism, promote blood circulation, keep the natural balance of body function, and thus have the effect of beauty.

2.7.2 The other Functions of Puer Tea
a) Dye and Pigment
Puer Tea is rich in pigment, and it could be used extensively, not only the bartender can use it, also cook can use them for making food. In the kitchen, people always prepare a Puer tea juice for seasoning dishes. Compared with chemical pigment, it pigment is generally much better. Puer tea also can be used to dye cloth, and be dyed various colors.
b) Organic Fertilizer
Used Puer tea still have inorganic salt, carbohydrate and other nutrients, heap the used tea in the garden or a plant pot, can help the development and reproduction of flowers.
c) Detergent
Tea can remove dirt, using tea for washing hair can make the hair soft and rich luster. Using tea water for bathing, not only can clear body and wash away the dirt, but also maintenance of the skin softness. Because the tea does not contain chemical agents that without any hurt of your hair and skin.